Publications

出版物
Paper / ChapterWorking paperArticles

Middle-Power Responses to China’s BRI and America’s Indo-Pacific Strategy: A Transformation of Geopolitics

Author

Chapter 12 by Tobias Burgers

Description

Asia is at a geopolitical crossroads. After China launched its ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, Japan and the United States responded with the November 2017 promulgation of the Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) Strategy. Perhaps not surprisingly, these two initiatives share some common features, and two of these - their ambiguity and their competitiveness - seem to be crucial in the foreign policy evaluation process. Competition leads to ambiguity, which makes reactions, and responses in foreign policy more and more difficult. Middle-Power Responses to China’s BRI and America’s Indo-Pacific Strategy addresses that gap. Starting from the insight that neither the BRI nor the FOIP exists in isolation, and drawing on the knowledge that when either China or the United States sneezes, it is often the less powerful geopolitical players that catch the worst colds, the chapters gathered herein examine how the US-China geopolitical competition affects nations as diverse as Taiwan, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and the member states of ASEAN. These insights are provided by an international, multidisciplinary group of leading experts that include military flag officers, academic researchers, current and former government officials, and retired diplomats, all of whom contribute to a well-rounded, multifaceted view of the transformation that is currently taking place in the geopolitics of the Asia-Pacific.

An Asian Perspective on the Governance of Cyber Civilization published in Electronic Markets

Author

Jiro Kokuryo (2022)

Description

This paper proposes potential benefits of adopting Asian philosophies in considering the design of “cyber civilization” governance. The West is currently struggling to balance the use of data for commercial purposes with the social good stemming from the protection of personal privacy and dignity. It is also grappling with the idea of machines having autonomous capabilities that human minds alone were supposed to monopolize. East Asia, with its tradition of Confucianism, Buddhism, and animism, has long emphasized the virtue of mutual benevolence as well as conviviality with nature, both of which may be contrasted with the Western emphasis on the autonomy of individuals and the supremacy of humans over nature. We need to revisit such foundational schools of thought in view of such factors as network externalities of data, extremely low marginal cost of digital services, and high level of traceability, all of which are altering the historical prerequisites of the modern market economy. In the face of the emergence of a new civilization, we need to find a guiding philosophy which allows us to develop policies that adequately benefit all people. There are notions such as integrity (fiduciary responsibility) that East and West share and that may be adopted to build broadly acceptable governance principles.

CCRC Technical Report on Security Recommendations for Distributed Energy System Aggregators, Based on METI Cyber and Physical Security Framework

経済産業省CPSFに基づくDERシステムのセキュリティに関するCCRC技術参考報告書

Author

Masaki Umejima, Selvakumar Manickam, Christian Primack Metcalfe, David Farber, Jun Murai, Jiro Kokuryou, Cherry HY Wong (2021.09)

Description

This report provides the technical reference for DER system security in alignment with the Cyber and Physical Security Framework (CPSF) presented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) of the Japanese government. It focus on the security of the DER system, which is the enabler of the demand response and aggregation business, and suggests the best practices recommendations of security, authentication, and network with the application of various international standards.

Executive Summary

本報告書は、経済産業省が提示したサイバー・フィジカル・セキュリティ対策フレームワーク(CPSF)に沿って、DERシステムのセキュリティに関する技術的な参考を提供しています。また、本報告書では、デマンド・レスポンスやアグリゲーションビジネスを実現するDERシステムのセキュリティに焦点を当て、様々な国際規格を適用したセキュリティ、認証、及びネットワークのベストプラクティスを提案しています。

Public opinion and its influence on cyber crisis decision-making processes published in Proceedings of the Weizenbaum Conference 2021

Author

Tobias Burgers, David Farber (2021)

Description

This short paper discusses and outlines the role and possible influence of the public on the decision-making process by national (political) leadership in times of security crisis due to cyberattacks. It argues that public opinion has a significant influence on shaping the outbound response by governments towards the perceived attackers.

Crumbling American dominance. China’s efforts to reshape the information and communication technology sector and its regional implications published in 1st ICI-OBIC Research Initiative Conference Handbook

Author

Tobias Burgers (2021)

Description

This working paper, presented at the NCCU ICI conference in 2019, discusses China’s technological rise and how it seeks to reshape the information and technology sector in the Asian Pacific. It argues that through its increased efforts to exports its technologies, tech resources, and its governance model through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), it is actively contesting the long-standing US technological dominance, which could have profound implications for how the Asian Pacific region uses, and foremost governs technologies.

In the line of fire Taiwan’s legal, political, and technological cybersecurity posture published in Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Rout-ledge

Author

Tobias Burgers, Moritz Hellmann, Scott N. Romaniuk (2021)

Description

This chapter, part of the Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, outlines and discusses Taiwan’s cybersecurity strategy, its main organizations, structures and policies.

本章は“Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy”に掲載されており、台湾のサイバーセキュリティ戦略、組織体制、方針について述べられています。

Japan’s challenges capabilities and preparedness in cyberspace published in Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, Routledge

Author

Tobias Burgers, Scott N. Romaniuk, Cherry H. Y. Wong (2021)

Description

This chapter, part of the Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy, outlines and discusses Japan’s cybersecurity strategy, its main organizations, structures and policies.

本章は“Routledge Companion to Global Cyber-Security Strategy”に掲載されており、日本でのサイバーセキュリティ戦略、組織体制、方針について述べられています。

Taiwan Public Lacks Understanding of Cyber Threats published in Strategic Vision vol. 9, no. 47

Author

Tobias Burgers, Hon-min Yau, & David J. Farber (2020.09)

Description

The article discusses perceptions towards societal level cyber threats in Taiwan. It argues there is a significant gap between the public perception and expert understanding. Building further on Jervis (1976) the authors argue that the diversion, and perception gap among two of the four factors that influence decision making processes could far reaching consequences on Taiwanese governmental decision making process in times of cyber crisis.

本章では台湾における社会レベルでのサイバー脅威に対する見方について述べられている。台湾では市民の見方と専門家の見識に大きなギャップがあることが指摘されている。

Perspectives and Approaches in AI Ethics: East Asia published in Oxford Handbook of Ethics of Artificial Intelligence, Oxford University Press

Author

Danit Gal (2019.06)

Description

This chapter introduces readers to distinct Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean perspectives on and approaches to AI and robots as tools and partners in the AI ethics debate. Little discussed and often ignored, this sensitive topic commands our attention as it continues to grow in local importance. Given East Asia’s influential position as a source of global inspiration, development, and supply of AI and robotics, we would do well to inform ourselves of what’s to come. Each country’s perspectives on and approaches to AI and robots on the tool-partner spectrum are evaluated by examining its policy, academic thought, local practices, and popular culture. This analysis places South Korea in the tool range, China in the middle of the spectrum, and Japan in the partner range. All three countries hold a salient tension between top-down tool approaches and bottom-up partner perspectives. This tension is likely to increase both in magnitude and importance and shape local and global development and regulation trajectories in the years to come.

本書は読者に対して中国、日本、韓国におけるAIと、道具やパートナーとしてのロボットの捉え方をAIの倫理的な議論を通して紹介しています。このテーマを議論する人は少なく、ほとんど無視されてきたため、人々の関心は部分的なものにとどまっていました。もし東アジアにAIやロボットの供給、開発、グローバルインスピレーションの影響力があるならば、私たちは次に何が来るか知らせるべきでしょう。それぞれの国の、AIやロボットへの見方は各国の方針、学問的見解、地域政策、文化の側面から、道具とパートナーの指標で示されています。そして筆者は、韓国を道具として、中国は道具とパートナーの中間として、日本はパートナーとしての味方が強いことを指摘しています。また、どの国も道具としてはトップダウン、パートナーとしてはボトムアップの勢いが顕著であることも示唆しています。この傾向はさらに加速する可能性が高いとされています。