This chapter introduces readers to distinct Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean perspectives on and approaches to AI and robots as tools and partners in the AI ethics debate. Little discussed and often ignored, this sensitive topic commands our attention as it continues to grow in local importance. Given East Asia’s influential position as a source of global inspiration, development, and supply of AI and robotics, we would do well to inform ourselves of what’s to come. Each country’s perspectives on and approaches to AI and robots on the tool-partner spectrum are evaluated by examining its policy, academic thought, local practices, and popular culture. This analysis places South Korea in the tool range, China in the middle of the spectrum, and Japan in the partner range. All three countries hold a salient tension between top-down tool approaches and bottom-up partner perspectives. This tension is likely to increase both in magnitude and importance and shape local and global development and regulation trajectories in the years to come.

Working Paper

Quest for Broadly Acceptable Architecture for Data Governance -A Man-Machine Conviviality Approach-
– Jiro Kokuryo, Jonathan Cave, David Farber, Hiroaki Miyata, Jun Murai, Takehiro Ohya, and Tatsuhiko Yamamoto (2019.11)

In order to protect human dignity given the ever-growing power of computers and data aggregation, we must adopt a new philosophy and architecture for the governance of data. We step beyond the conventional assumption of human monopoly of intelligence and envision integrated man-machine agents that will emerge to safeguard personal data on a firm basis of trust. A new “cyber civilization” is dawning, in which humans live with machines in conviviality, and we must develop governance structures that address this reality. A few guiding principles for the design of the architecture are proposed.


An analysis is offered on the relationship between traceability and sharing economy. Here, sharing economy is synonymous with “expansion of the right of use licensing (as opposed to ownership transfer) business model.” Traceability is defined as “a state where the principle owner of property rights or product liability for some physical or intellectual property is able to continuously confirm the state of the property and who is using it.” Under low traceability environments, businesses have no choice but to use the ownership sales-oriented business model. However, if advances in ICT realize high traceability environments, they will be able to adopt a model in which products are not sold and transferred, but in which only use rights are granted for a specified time in various form including rentals. Impact of barcodes and mobiles devices are analyzed to illustrate how traceability increased the level of sharing in supply chains.

ICT によるモノやヒトのトレーサビリティ(追跡可能性)の高まりがシェアリングエコノミーの拡大に果たしてきた役割について分析した。ここで「シェアリングエコノミーの拡大」を「(所有権販売型に対する)利用権販売型のビジネスモデルの拡大」と同義で議論している。また、トレーサビリティを「ある物財や知財について財産権や製造物責任を有している主体が、その財がどんな状態にあり,誰が利用しているかについて継続的に確認できる状態」と定義する。基本的論理はICT の進化によってトレーサビリティが高まり、商品が誰によって利用されているかを提供者が把握し続けることができるようになると、売り渡すかわりに、特定の時間内の利用権だけを与え、別の時間には別の利用者に提供するモデルを採用することが容易となって拡大する、というものである。バーコードやモバイル通信の導入とともにトレーサビリティとシェアリングが拡大してきた過程を例示している。