Paper / ChapterWorking paperArticles

Society-Centric Cyber Conflict
Understanding its dynamics and potential in East-Asia



Tobias Burgers and David Farber (2021.08)


This paper discusses the recent and worrisome increase in cyber-attacks that target critical infrastructure. We argue it is essential to better understand these attacks and their impact. By providing an analytical framework, we measure the impact of such attacks and argue that attacks with societal impacts trigger a new form of cyber conflict which we define as society-centric cyber conflict (S3C). We argue that in S3C, we must better understand the societal dimension of cyber conflict: It is necessary to understand a) the societal impact of cyber-attacks and b) societal reactions to the impact of such attacks, and c) how societal reactions could influence the dynamics of cyber conflict. We argue that these variables are specifically crucial in understanding the escalation dynamics in cyber conflict. Highlighting the lack of data on societal impact and reactions, we provide a methodological approach to gather much-needed data and make a case for further research on S3C - in specific in the Asian-Pacific region where we believe the significant potential for S3C exist with implications for regional cybersecurity dynamics and (broader) security relations.

本ワーキングペーパーは、重要インフラを標的としたサイバー攻撃が近年増加していることをうけ、これらの攻撃とその影響をより理解することが不可欠であると考えている。分析フレームワークを設定することにより、このような攻撃の影響を測り、社会的影響を伴う攻撃が、社会中心のサイバー紛争(S3C)と呼ばれる新しい形態のサイバー紛争を引き起こすきっかけとなっていると論じる。S3Cでは、サイバー紛争の社会的側面を考える上で、以下の3点を理解する必要がある。a)サイバー攻撃の社会的影響、b)そのような攻撃の影響に対する社会の反応、および、c)社会の反応がサイバー紛争のダイナミクスにどのように影響するかを理解する必要がある。これらの項目は、サイバー紛争が深刻化する可能性や動向を理解する上で特に重要である。 社会的な影響や反応に関するデータが不足していることを踏まえ、必要なデータを収集するための方法論的アプローチを提示し、S3Cに関するさらなる研究の必要性を主張する。特にアジア太平洋地域では、S3Cによって引き起こされる潜在的な影響力が大きく、地域のサイバーセキュリティダイナミクス、またより広く安全保障関係に影響を与えると考える。

Distance learning with trust over open network policy: Nagasaki-Takaoka Model as a case study on distance learning for K12 education in Japan


Masaki Umejima, Cherry H.Y. Wong, Jiro Kokuryo, Jun Murai, David Farber, Keiko Okawa, Naoto Mashita, Rena Ryuji, and Kan Suzuki (2020.12)


COVID-19 crisis is ascending the needs of distance learning. Keio University has been engaging in the revision of educational ICT policies in Japan for many years, however Japanese school network guideline by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japanese Government (hereinafter refer to MEXT) regulated every school to depend on a dedicated line for many years. In December 2019, the new educational network guideline announced by MEXT paved the way that every school launches distance learning class on public cloud service through the internet access via a public network. The new guideline mandated that the combination of cloud service, authentication, and encryption ensures to protect student data, unbundling the security and the network design. “Nagasaki-Takaoka Model” in which data trust is ensured on the open network has aimed to be the reference model of distance learning for K12 education in Japan. In December 2020. Takaoka City is ready to start distance learning in every elementary school and junior high school.


Mutual Liberation of Consumers and Technology in the Recorded Music Industry
-A Historical Analysis of the Evolution of Experience Economy-



Minkyoung Cho and Jiro Kokuryo (2020.10)


This paper describes how business models in the music recording industry have evolved in accordance with technological developments and a changing societal environment. The research initially started with a historical analysis on how new technologies have been reshaping business models to provide a better, or ‘liberating,’ experience for consumers while unbundling and rebundling various components of the delivery system to secure revenue from the intangible “experience” good. At the theoretical level, this paper aims to establish a generic model for how technology affects business models in the “experience economy.” Development of such a framework is important as the business models suited to physical goods are not useful for the rapidly developing experience goods that are delivered digitally. The first phase of the research strongly suggested that not only technologies but also major societal events, most notably those that triggered economic recessions, may have played a role in the development of new forms of business models in the industry that sometimes use technologies that were developed decades before. A second phase of research was conducted to verify how social events played a role in the evolution of business models and technology adoptions that came with it. We found instances of both technology-led evolution AND socially-led innovations. Ultimately, we found that the meaning of ‘liberation’ in consumer experience has changed throughout history, which acted as the driving force in the development of business models for experience goods like music.


Quest for Broadly Acceptable Architecture for Data Governance -A Man-Machine Conviviality Approach-


Jiro Kokuryo, Jonathan Cave, David Farber, Hiroaki Miyata, Jun Murai, Takehiro Ohya, and Tatsuhiko Yamamoto (2019.11)


In order to protect human dignity given the ever-growing power of computers and data aggregation, we must adopt a new philosophy and architecture for the governance of data. We step beyond the conventional assumption of human monopoly of intelligence and envision integrated man-machine agents that will emerge to safeguard personal data on a firm basis of trust. A new “cyber civilization” is dawning, in which humans live with machines in conviviality, and we must develop governance structures that address this reality. A few guiding principles for the design of the architecture are proposed.


Evolution of Traceability and Sharing Economies


Jiro Kokuryo (2018.10)


An analysis is offered on the relationship between traceability and sharing economy. Here, sharing economy is synonymous with “expansion of the right of use licensing (as opposed to ownership transfer) business model.” Traceability is defined as “a state where the principle owner of property rights or product liability for some physical or intellectual property is able to continuously confirm the state of the property and who is using it.” Under low traceability environments, businesses have no choice but to use the ownership sales-oriented business model. However, if advances in ICT realize high traceability environments, they will be able to adopt a model in which products are not sold and transferred, but in which only use rights are granted for a specified time in various form including rentals. Impact of barcodes and mobiles devices are analyzed to illustrate how traceability increased the level of sharing in supply chains.

ICT によるモノやヒトのトレーサビリティ(追跡可能性)の高まりがシェアリングエコノミーの拡大に果たしてきた役割について分析した。ここで「シェアリングエコノミーの拡大」を「(所有権販売型に対する)利用権販売型のビジネスモデルの拡大」と同義で議論している。また、トレーサビリティを「ある物財や知財について財産権や製造物責任を有している主体が、その財がどんな状態にあり,誰が利用しているかについて継続的に確認できる状態」と定義する。基本的論理はICT の進化によってトレーサビリティが高まり、商品が誰によって利用されているかを提供者が把握し続けることができるようになると、売り渡すかわりに、特定の時間内の利用権だけを与え、別の時間には別の利用者に提供するモデルを採用することが容易となって拡大する、というものである。バーコードやモバイル通信の導入とともにトレーサビリティとシェアリングが拡大してきた過程を例示している。